Zapproved Blog

Despite late legal hold, no relevant evidence lost

World Trade Ctrs. Assoc., Inc. v. Port Auth. of N.Y. & N.J., No. 15 Civ. 7411 (LTS) (RWL) (S.D.N.Y. Apr. 2, 2018). In this trademark infringement case, the court denied sanctions despite the plaintiff’s negligent preservation of documents because the defendant failed...

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What Is Forensically Sound Data Collection?

Defending collection processes in court Forensically sound data collection refers to the process by which data is collected for ediscovery without any changes to the data or its metadata. Collection itself is part of the second stage of the ediscovery process, in...

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What Is Document Review?

Defining the document review phase of ediscovery What is document review? Also known as simply review, document review is the stage of the EDRM in which organizations examine documents connected to a litigation matter to determine if they are relevant, responsive, or...

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What Is Proportionality?

Limiting the extent of ediscovery based on the needs of the case. What is proportionality in ediscovery? In essence, proportionality represents a global cost-benefit analysis, whereby the court considers the needs of the case and weighs the importance of information...

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What Is Technology-Assisted Review or TAR?

Using computers and AI to aid in ediscovery review What is technology-assisted review (TAR) or computer-assisted review (CAR)? Both terms refer to an approach within the document review phase of ediscovery that leverages computer algorithms to identify and tag...

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What Is a Trigger Event?

How to determine when to enact a litigation response plan What is a trigger event? A trigger event is an indicator to an ediscovery professional that a litigation matter or regulatory investigation is likely to follow, when then triggers the duty to preserve...

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